Monday, January 19, 2009

Gajamituro to end Human Elephant Conflict

  • Safer Sri Lanka has received a number of elephant human conflict incidents during the first half of January alone. Elephants are essentially a vital element of our culture. Sri Lanka has been famous for elephants in the history. In addition, wild elephants have added so much glamour and beauty to our forests.

    However, human-elephant conflict is a well known problem that Sri Lanka has faced with the development. It is said that with the liberation of the East, the number of elephant human conflicts have gone up due to more inhabitance of these areas by humans.


    Latest wild Life Conservation Report has stated that 2241 elephants have died as a result of shooting, unknown reason, electrocution, poisoning, accidents and other causes from 1900 to 2007.

    The current elephant population is estimated only to be 3500-4000.

    More than 860 human lives have been lost due to human-elephant conflict between 1992-2007.

    3103 properties have been damaged between 1992-2007.

    A new programme called "Gajamituro" (Friends of Elephants) has been launched in collaboration with the Wild Life Conservation Department and Nation Building Ministry Ministry.

For the full article refer the Editorial of Daily News, 17th January 2009.

Picture Credit: © 2007 / Feb. 16, 2007

Saturday, January 17, 2009

Online Citizen Registration...E-volution should start some where!

Some persons have raised their concerned about the accessibility of computers and internet for online registration in Sri Lanka. It is true that internet is not a commodity that is available at every house hold, however, this should not restrict us from taking the benefits of this very strong tool for the development of the country. We should not wait for the technology to come and knock at our door step, instead we should go for it. Online citizens registration thus will promote the use of internet and make citizens aware of the technological developments in the world.

Friday, January 16, 2009

Disaster Management Job and Project Opportunities....

Safer Sri Lanka will publish two sections with Disaster Management realted job and programme related opportuniteis, from today onwards.
Hope this will be of use for those of you who are interested in Disaster Management field.
In addition, if you have any job or project opportuniteis to be published in Safer Sri Lanka, please forward them to

Disaster Management Project Opportunities

Agency: Disaster Management Centre/United Nations Development Porgramme
Type of Opoortunity: Call for Expression of Interest
Project: Disaster Risk Reduction Approach for Floods in Ampara, Batticaloa and Polonnarwa Districts
Dead Line: 2009 January 2009, by 2.00 p.m.
Advertisement: Daily News. Thursday, January 2009, Page 25.

Disaster Management Job Opportunities

Vacancies - Disaster Management Centre
Post: Deputy Director Finance
Dead Line: 26th January 2009
Advertisement:Daily News, Thursday, January 15th, 2009, page Xii

A long term plan to manage the Coconut Leaf Diseases in Sri Lanka ….

“Leaf Rot Disease” and “Weligama Leaf Wilt Disease” have affected large number of coconut trees in the Southern Province. These diseases are found in Matara District, Galle District ( Habaraduwa and Galle AGA Divisions) and Hambantota District (Walasmulla, Beliatta and Tangalle AGA Divisions).

“Leaf Rot Disease” is a fungal infection infecting the bud leaves, first reported from Weligama in 2000. As the name implies, it involves the rotting of the leaves along with crown reduction, yield reduction and death of the palm in 3-5 years. Fungicides were initially useful, how ever, later became ineffective as the chemical needs to be applied to the bud region.

“Weligam Leaf Wilt Disease is caused by a group of organisms called phytoplasma, which lives in the phloem tissue. The organism affect palms affected by leaf rot disease and other diseases. This is not a lethal disease, how ever, reduces palm vigor and yield.

An extensive programme has been implemented by the Coconut Research Institute to conbat these aggressive pathogens. These are the key strategies of the plan:
1. Maintenance of a disease free boundary and improve quarantine measures.
2. Manage plants in the centre area- As it is not practical to destroy all the coconut plants in the affected area, only the unproductive and aged plants will be removed in a phased manner.
3. Establishment of alternative/inter crops – This is intended to help the farmers cope with the fincancial losses due to the diseases.

In addition, the Coconut Research Institute is conducting research to produce resistant coconut varieties.

Based on a lecture by Dr. L.C.R. Fernando, Coconut Research Institute.

38 automated Weather Monitoring Stations to be established islandwide...

The Department of Meteorology of Sri Lanka has taken measures to establish 38 automated weather stations in the country. This project has been undertaken with the funding of JICA (Japanese International Cooperation Agency).

In addition, a Doppler Radar System will be established with the funding of the Government of Sri Lanka. This system will help the tracking of weather systems such as cyclones and thunder storms.

20 automated rain gauges will also be established in Kalutara, Gampaha and Ratnapura Districts.

Crashed US Airway Plane lands in a River: All lives safe!

US Airway Plane 1549 which was heading to Charlotte, North Carolina, crashed in New York Thursday (15/01/2009), how ever all of the lives of the 148 passengers and 5 crew members have been saved. The plane departed from the La Guardia Airport at 3.26 p.m. and had a sudden landing after five minutes in the Hudson River. The plane was submerged for some time in the river, and was shifting southwards, from which the passengers were rescued by ferries and life guards. Divers from US Police also helped the rescue efforts.

The possible cause for this accident has been striking with a flock of birds which has caused a power loss from both engines. This incident, which was a near escape of another great tragedy, has been a miracle, only due to the correct and rapid decision making ability of the pilot, Chesley Sullenberger III, who wanted to avoid a densly populated area in landing, as well as the nearness of the rescue boats, coupled with the successful search and rescue workers.

Visit International Herald Tribune for the full story.

Picture Credit :Reuters

Thursday, January 15, 2009

Largest Influx into government controlled areas....

Largest number of civilians from the LTTE controlled areas have been reported on the 14th, 655 in number. They arrived in Kevil and Murusamudai areas. People have walked or used boats to arrive. Emergency needs such as food, water, shelter and health care facilities have been provided to them, saya the Sri Lankan Forces. A sharp increase is expected in civilians in near future.

Visit for the full report.

Wednesday, January 14, 2009

Sri Lanka Incident Map 11-13 January 2009

Short Codes for Public Safety and Convenience…

The Telecommunications Regulatory Commission of Sri Lanka announces 6 charge free and 9 normal call charge short codes for public safety and convenience.

The total free 3 digit codes are as follows:

110 Fire Services in Colombo Municipality
Colombo Municipal Council Fire Unit
Kandy Municipal Council Fire Unit
Search and Recue and transport of patients in Galle and Kurunegala
Karapitiya Teaching Hospital
Kurunegala Teaching Hospital
114 Operation Commander – Colombo – for Security matters
115 Colombo Municipal Council – for sanitary and other services needing prompt attention
116 Sri Lanka Air Force – for informing about Suspected Air Crafts
118 Ministry of Defence, Public Security and Law and Order
119 Sri Lanka Police Department

The normal charge 4 digits short codes are as follows:

1900 Telecommunications Regulatory Commission
1912 Ministry of Tourism
1919 Government Information Centre
1920 Ministry of Agricultural Development
1929 Child Help Line Call Centre, Ministry of Child Development and Women Empowerment
1939 National Water Supplies and Drainage Board
1954 Commission to Investigate Allegations of Bribery and Corruptions
1973 Sri Lankan Airlines Limited
1991 Ministry of Environmental and natural Resources

Tuesday, January 13, 2009

Chikungunya…that which bends up

Chikungunya is a mosquito borne viral disease. Around 3500 cases of Chikungunya have been reported from Ratnapura, Kalmunai, Polonnaruwa and Monaragala districts during the recent epidemic (December 2008/January 2009).
The infective agent is Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV), which belongs toalpha-virus under Toga viridae family. It is an "Arbovirus"(Ar-arthropod,bo-borne).It was first isolated form the blood of a febrile patient in Tanzania in 1953 and was first reported from Sri Lanka in 1969. Cyclical appearance of epidemics and becoming silent sometimes for decades is a characteristic of this infection. The first epidemic of Chikungunya was reported from Colombo and Kalutara in 2006.
This viral infection is spread by mosquitoes Aedis aegypti and Aedis albopictus, the same vectors of Dengue Fever. Aedis aegypti is the principal vector of Chikungunya. This is a household container breeder and aggressive day time biter. Aedis albopictus in Asia, and other varieties of mosquitoes in Africa also contribute to the spread of this epidemic. Mosquitoes get infected when they feed on a blood meal of an infected person. Similarly, when the infected mosquito bites another human being, the virus may be transmitted. The incubation period or time from infection to illness is 2 to12 days, however, it is usually 3 to 7 days.
One should suspect Chikungunya if the following symptoms are there:
  • High Fever.
  • Joint pains: many joints are often affected.
  • Rash.
  • Nausea, vomiting and headache.

It should be noted that the differentiation of Dengue fever and Cikungunya at initial stages can be difficult. Unlike dengue fever, Chikungunya does not kill people, except the very old and those with preexisting morbidities. However, this illness can make a patient suffer sometimes for months, due to handicapping joint pains.

There is no specific treatment for Chikungunya. You should drink a lot of fluids and take pain killers for pain. If the symptoms are severe after a considerable duration of time, a specialist may decide on starting long-term anti inflammatory therapy.

Chikungunya can be prevented through the following strategies:

  • Risk communication to the public with the use of mass media and community members.
  • Control of mosquito breeding sites.
  • Preventing mosquito human contact.
  • Strengthening the epidemiological surveillance.
  • Fogging at selected locations with Malathion, kills adult mosquito population, of limited value.

Chikungunya, as Dengue fever, is a result of unsustainable development. Unplanned town development and poor solid waste management systems have provided ample breeding grounds for the mosquitoes. Chikungunya epidemics should be an eye opener to all Sri Lankans to initiative a positive trend towards a Safer Sri Lanka.

Don’t waste water! Warns water board….

The National Water Supplies and Drainage Board warned that it may have to restrict water supply to the Colombo City and it’s suburbs due to the drought situation and seepage of salt water to the Kelani Ganga intake area.

The condition has been aggravated due to the high water consumption in the current dry weather. In addition, unsafe use of drinking water for non-urgent activities such as washing vehicles and watering plants has contributed to this.

Monday, January 12, 2009

Unsafe Railway Crossing - Time to Rethink....

Within last few weaks, Safer Sri Lanka received reports of two accidents from occuring at railway crossing in Negombo: one of them killing five from the same family and the other a near miss for two.

Sri Lanka has a sad history of accidents occuring at unsafe Rail Way crossings, some times exploding into mass fatality incidents. Well-desciplined pedestrians and motorists have a big role in preventing such tragic incidents. However, creating of safe Railway crossing is equally important, as people often do not respect railway crossing much.

Thus it is important to use as many methods as possible to prevent rail Way Crossing Accidents such as warning signs, rail gates, alarming bells, and alarming lights. It is equally important that rail drivers also take additional care when driving through railway crossings.

The good news about Railway Crossing accidents is that they can be prevnted but the bad news is that we often forget that!

Photocredit: Wikipedia

Coastal Consultants Wanted!!!!! North East Coastal Community Development Project

The North East Coastal Community Development Project (NECCDP) has advertised their need to obtain the consultancy of experts for Technical Studies under the Resource Management in Three Specail Management Areas and Coastal Resource Planning. This is a porject by the Ministry of Nation Building and Estate Infrastructure Development.

Refer: Daily News 12 January 2009, for the advertisement.

Anticipating a mass exodus of civilians...

The Government of Sri Lanka is anticipating a mass exodus of civilians from the LTTE controlled areas in the near future. The authorities said that they are making prepeartions to receive and provide essential services to such crowds. Vavuniya will serve as a humanitarian hub for such citizens.

7 fleeing civilians loose their lives...

7 civilians including 2 children fleeing from Murusumuddai East and Kanchipuram in Vavuniya District belonging to the LTTE controlled areas have lost their lives following attacks by the LTTE , reported Sri Lanka Army. This incident occured on 10th Saturday 2009, in Nothern Wanni. 183 civilians have come to the areas under control by the governemnt. Around 200 civilians have come to government controlled areas for security during the last few days.

Citizen registration on-line!!!!!

Citizen registration through is now functional. Mobile units and governemnt institutions ( will be informed later) and government IT centres such as Nenasala will help the general public to provide their information and to obtain registration.

You need to sumbit the following details for the registration:

1. Number of people living in the house hold.

2. Adress.

3. Date of birth of residents.

4. National Identity card, passport and driving liscence number.

5. Contact details: office, land and mobile numbers and email address.

6. Details of non permanent residents.

There is no deadline or hard and fast rules for registration, so you can register at your convenience.

Visit for your online registration now!


Saturday, January 10, 2009

Sri Lanka Incident Map 04 -08 Janaury 2009

Drowning in Kelani River - Urgent Action Needed to Safeguard Life…..

Another death has been reported in the Sri Lanka incident map due to drowning in the Kelani River in Yatiyanthota. Every year 8-10 people loose their lives while bathing in Kelani River in the Yatiynathota Medical Officer of Health area. Many of the diseased are strangers to the area and they do not know the dangerous spots of the Kelani River. These deaths peak during the Sri Pada (Adam's Peak) season when pilgrims take unnecessary risk of bathing in unprotected places. Often the drowned people have been under the influence of alcohol.

The dangerous spots need to be identified with the support of the local community and warning boards need to be established . However, this is not easy as many of the river side hoteliers and small scale boutiques depend on river bathers for their income and they fear that such boards will hinder their business.

Considering the high frequency of the incidents, an urgent mechanism needs to be created to identify hot spots. GIS can be used to map hot spots. The identified hot spots need to be communicated to the bathers. In addition, life savers could be identified or trained from the affected community to search and rescue affected people. The collaboration of the District Disaster Management Coordinator, the District Secretariat, Police, Medical Officer of Health and the local community is mandatory in this regard.

Picture credit:

Kelani river:, warning sign

Chickungunya Outbreak – Monaragala and Polonnaruwa

1300 patients have been reported from Monaragala during the current epidemic and 1106 from Embilipitiya in Ratnapura District and 200 from Polonnaruwa, as per 10.01.2009.

Legislation Granting Citizenship approved by Parliament

Sri Lankan Parliament has decided to grant Sri Lankan Citizenship to28,500 stateless Tamils of Indian Origin. Ammendments were made to two bills and the house passed them without a vote. According to the pre-existing provisions of “Granting of Citizenship to Stateless Persons Act of 1964”, Tamils of Indian Origin had to stay for 30 years in the country to obtain citizenship.

Registration of Citizens can be done online now.....

Ministry of Defence, Public Security, Law & Order has launched a programme to register all citizens of Sri Lanka. It is mandatory for all Sri Lankan citizens to register under this scheme.
This can be done easily through the website

visit to register online now!!!!

Friday, January 9, 2009

Appeton Weight Gain, helping underweight Sri Lankans or Overweight Food Industry?

"Appeton Weight Gain to help the underweight Sri Lankans" was the heading of an advertisement appeared in the Daily News of January 8, 2009, promoting the above formula for adults and children.

Undernutrition is undoubtebdly a serious health problem in Sri Lanka. On average 1 in 3 of children are undernurished. This has given rise to many health problems, with longterm complications. Povery and nutritional myths are amongst the main contributors for malnutrition.

"The issue of weight gain is very much misunderstood in Sri lanka," the above article says, how ever, I am very concerned if the above product promoter undersatnds the issue of weight gain in Sri Lanka at least partially. According to the above article, chidren are underweight due to "poor appetite". The reasons given for "poor appetite" are illness, deprssion, long term medication and deficiency of vitamins and minerals.

Any health personal who has worked in this country, know the real causes for undernutrition among children and adults. Poverty is the number one cause for underweight. Research have clearly shown that malnutrition is more prevelant among poor communities. In addition, a whole range of nutritional myths contribute to malnutrition. Social issues such as alcohol consumption and inabiltiy to choose nutritious food with the avilable resources are two causes for malnutrition.
In the above advertisement, the product has been promoted as a miraculous formula which helps you to gain.. gain .. and gain more weight. It gives a list of pseudoscientifc justifications which have not been referenced to clinically proven data. We compared the nutritional value of an egg (50g) with 50g of Appeton Weight Gain.

From the above table, it is clear that there is nothing magical for one to spend for Appeton Weight Gain instead of one or two eggs per day! Considering the sky high price of the product cannot be afforded by majority of Sri lankans who are underweight.

Appeton Weight Gain spends huge amounts of money on promotional activities ranging from painting buses with advertisements to providing general practitioners with Appeton sponsored name borads through direct to consumer advertising as the one discussed hear. The fact is that this product or any other of similar kind will not help underweight peple or children to gain weigt but definitely help food inductry to gain...gain... and gain more profit!

The promotor is confusing the reader with two issues: the product as an appetitie stimuliser and the product as a nutritiously miraculous product. The issue is whehter appetite stimulants can be promoted to the consumers directly.

This is another good exmple of how food industry deceives their customers. Safer Sri Lanka raised concerns over "Actign E" few months ago. Legal action has been filed against the above adverteisement.
It is high time that Sri Lankan food and drug regulatory mechanism raise their voice to stop this unsceintific therefore unethical promotion.

Thursday, January 8, 2009

DOTS, the missing componenet.....

Tubercolosis is a disease with a a heavy global burden. it is an illness of the poor, marginalised and the vulnerable. Every year, 8 million new cases of Tuberculosis are reported. 95% of them occur in developping countries. 2 million people die every year due to Tuberculosis.

Directly Observed Treatment Shortcurse (DOTS), is the only proven effective means by which 85% cure rate can be achieved on a programme basis. DOTS is a systemic strategy with five components:
  1. Political Commitment: Tuberculosis cna be cured! Thus governments are demanded for assigning necessary priority and allocating essential resources for Tuberculosis control.
  2. Good Quality Diagnosis: Highly sensitive, specific yet affordabletest for Tuberculosis diagnosis is sputum smear microscopy.
  3. Good Quality Drugs: The weapon that changed the course of deadly tuberculosis disease was good quality drugs. All people should have access to quality, effective and safe anti-tuberculosis drugs at affordable prices to cure themselves.
  4. Short-course Chemotherapy given under direct observation: A non health wroker or trained person who is not a family member observes the patient swallowing the drugs. It shifts the responsability for cure from patient to the health care system.
  5. Systematic monitoring and accountability: Every Tuberculosis patient needs to be recorded and followed up. This is the key to enhancing public acceptance of the programme and the prevention of emergence of Multi-Drug Resistance (MDR) Tuberculosis.

However, I am of the opinion that DOTS is missing a very important sixth component, that is the need to address Stigma aggressivelt. Tuberculosis patients have to interact with many groups of people, when a patient is diagnosed as TB, he or she is often stigmatised. The fact is that a ptient who is taking anti-TB drugs becomes non-infectious within 2 weeks with modern drugs. We interact with many undiagnosed Tuberculosis patients daily, who are infecting others but not taking drugs. Tuberculosis is accepted as a disease with unbelievable loads of stigma. Infact, patients have to fight two lethal organisms simultaniously, namely Mycobacterium tubercolosis and Social stigam lethalis! Expensive behavioural change communication programmes have been conducted to reduce the social stigma of Tuberculosis, however, we recently discovered a massive load of stigma towards Tuberculosis amongst a fairly educated crowd of officials. Is it that the media driven promotional campaign is not reaching the grass root level or should we refine the message in a more socially acceptable manner? It is high time that we hunt for this very important yet missing component of DOTS strategy.

Mr. Lasantha Wickramathunga passes away....

Sunday Leader Editor Mr. Lasantha Wickramathunga succumbed to injuries caused by two unknown gunmen in Aththidiya, in the suberbs of Colombo.
He was rushed to Colombo South Teaching Hospital(CSTH), Kalubowila. An additional special team of medical specialists were summoned from the National Hospital of Sri Lanka (NHSL).

Government of Sri Lanka Bans LTTE

The Government of Sri lanka has proscribed the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) with effect from 7th January 2009 Midnight.
This was in accordance with a memorandum submitted by President Mahinda Rajapaksa, under Chapter 40 of the Public Security Ordinance.
Some reasons given by the government for the above ban are:
  1. Committing acts of terrorism and other forms of violence.
  2. Engaging in armed conflict with the government forces and police.
  3. Threatening the sovereignity and territorial integrity of the country.
  4. Aim of establishing a seperate state within Sri lanka.
  5. Using civilians as hostage and a human shield.
  6. Using child soldiers.
LTTE is proscribed in 31 countries, including India, USA, UK, Canada, Australia and France.

visit for more details.

Wednesday, January 7, 2009

Sri Lanka Incident Map 04-06 January 2009

Emerging Infections Diseases…We got to prepare!!!!!

Infectious diseases are probably old as human civilization. Developing countries suffer mostly from infectious diseases while the developed countries suffer mostly from non-communicable diseases. The countries in developmental transition like Sri Lanka have faced a double burden of diseases, both infections and non-communicable.

In the World Health Organization definition of Emerging Infectious Diseases, the following categories can be identified:

1. Diseases of infectious origin whose incidence in humans has increased within the recent past or threatens to increase in the near future.
2. Infections that appear in new geographic areas or increase abruptly.
3. New infectious diseases and those which are re-emerging after a period of quiescence

Over the last 30 years, 30 new pathogenic organisms have emerged. SARS, Avian Influenza, Nipah virus, Chandipura and dengue fever are some of the infections that have emerged in the Asian region in the recent past.Chickungunya epidemic that has been reported from many parts of Sri Lanka during the last few years is another example of a newly emerging infectious disease. Other examples of newly emerging infectious diseases include Hepatitis C, Guanarito virus,
Encephalitozoon hellem, New species of Babesia, Vibrio cholerae O139, Bartonella henselae, Sin nombre virus,
Encephalitozoon cunculi, Sabia virus, HHV-8, HIV/IADS and Multi Drug Resistant TB.

It can be stated that Asia will be the epicenter of future outbreaks of emerging infections, due to the socioeconomic and environmental background and the weak health infrastructure facilities.

Urbanization, population expansion and poverty leading to poor living conditions, poor health infrastructure, environmental degradation and climate change are some of the contributory factors for the emergence of such infections diseases.

The developing countries will suffer most from such emerging infectious disease outbreaks, however, the whole world will eventually have to suffer, especially in the current inter dependent global economic system.

WHO has identified five strategic elements that are needed to combat emerging
diseases. These include:
(1) Epidemic preparedness and rapid response
(2) Public health infrastructure
(3) Risk communication
(4) Research and its utilization
(5) Advocacy for political commitment and partnership building
(6) Epidemic preparedness and rapid response

The risk of use of infectious agents as biological weapons cannot excluded, given the extremely fragile geopolitical relations in the Asian Region. This should be another very valid reason for Asia to prepare for such epidemics.


Tuesday, January 6, 2009

Sri Lanka Incident Map 03-06 January 2009

06.01.2009 Attck on Sirasa TV/FM (MTV) headquarters in Kottawa, Depanama, Pannipitiya. Transmission station damaged.

Monday, January 5, 2009

Sri Lanka Incident Map 02-04 January 2009

4/1/2009 Fire in Maskeliya has destroyed 20 line houses. No casualties. 100 people displaced.
3/1/2009 Slight Rise in Dengue Cases in Colombo Municipal Council Area.
3/1/2009 Severe Cold Wave in Nuwara Eliya.
3/1/2009 Explosion, Colombo Bankshall Street, 2 casualties.

Friday, January 2, 2009

International Days in Human Rights.....

March 8 - International Women's Day
Mrch 21 - International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
April 23 - World Book and Copyright Day
May 15 - International Day of families
MAy 31 - World No-Tobacco Day
June 5 - World Environment Day
June 20 - World Refugee Day
June 26 - International Day Against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking and International Day in Support of Victims of Torture
July 11- World Population Day
October 1 - International Day for Older persons
October 24 - United Nations Day and World Development Information Day
November 16 - International Day of Tolerance
November 20 - Universal Children's Day
November 25 - International Day for the Elimination of Volence against Women
December 1 - World Aids Day
December 3 - International Day for Disabled persons
December 9 - International Anti-Corruption day
December 10 - Human Rights Day
December 18 - International Migrants Day

Source: An article publihed in Daily news of 02.10.2009 by legal Aid Commission.

1919 For Useful Information of Government Services...

The Government Information Centre (GIC) is operating a hotline 1919 to provide useful information on government services including government banks. This service is available in Sinhala, Tamil and English.

This service is operational from 8.00 am to 8.00 pm daily.

On alert to face Bird Flu Epidemics....

Special programmes will be conducted this year too to prevent the emergence of bird flu epidemics. These programmes will focus on identification and control of suspected bird flu outbreaks, said Dr. (Mrs.) Swarna Herath, Director General of Department of Animal Production and Health.

A mechanism will be created to promptly notify incidents of suspected mass deaths of birds through a hotline. Measures have already been formulated to be followed in case of a bird flu epidemic.

Special attention has been payed to enhance awareness about the identification and management of such outbreaks, among farm staff.

Joint programmes will be conducted with the participation of veteranary and public health staff to strengthen the response capacity during a suspected or actual outbreak.

Source: Lankadeepa, 01.01.2009

Sri Lanka Incident Map 2009.01.02